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Assouline-Dayan Y, Chang C, Greenspan A, et al: Pathogenesis and natural history of osteonecrosis. Effects of cholecystokinin and carbamylcholine on Paneth cell secretion in mice: a comparison with pancreatic acinar cells. For some babies, no values are plotted for the first few days because the total amount of bacteria in the stool samples collected on those days was insufficient for microarray-based analysis. Although the catalog of diverse Paneth cell secretory products is expanding, the specific role(s), routes of delivery, and mechanisms of action of individual secretory products still remain poorly understood. Mechanisms underlying capsaicin-stimulated secretion in the stomach: comparison with mucosal acidification. Permeabilization techniques were initially used to demonstrate Ca2-induced secretion. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs activate quiescent inflammatory bowel disease. Cells were subsequently infused without prior conditioning or cytoreductive treatment. The original observation that fluid can be transported in the apparent absence of an osmotic gradient was made in a series of elegant studies by a few pioneering physiologists in the late nineteenth century. However, a systematic review and metaanalysis of 12 studies reported that the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was 54% by positive lactulose or glucose hydrogen breath test, but only 4% by jejunal aspirate and culture. Intravascular Volume Expansion As noted, albumin provides the majority of plasma colloid oncotic pressure. An early phase clinical trial is being conducted in adults with hematologic malignancies with 1 of 2 units of a double-unit graft being incubated with the agent. Intracellular pH regulation in guinea-pig caecal and colonic enterocytes during and after loading with short-chain fatty acids and ammonia. Twenty-four-hour manometric study of colonic propulsive activity in patients with diarrhea due to inflammatory (ulcerative colitis) and non-inflammatory (irritable bowel syndrome) conditions. Ruutu P, Ruutu T, Volin L, et al: Cytomegalovirus is frequently isolated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of bone marrow transplant recipients without pneumonia. It is worth mentioning here that different cells appear to utilize different mechanisms to upregulate their thiamin uptake. Salvatierra O Jr, Melzer J, Potter D, et al: A seven-year experience with donor-specific blood transfusions: Results and considerations for maximum efficacy. Hence a high index of suspicion and an aggressive approach are required to establish its diagnosis and initiate therapy. The Hemovigilance Module provides standard criteria and definitions to participating facilities to report adverse events related to blood transfusion that will result in aggregate data suitable for trend analyses and benchmarking. Mechanism of NaCl secretion in the rectal gland of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). Cellular products that fall into this classification are referred to as Type 361 products. The main advantages of recombinantly produced proteins include freedom from human viruses and a potentially unlimited supply. Damiani D, Fanin R, Silvestri F, et al: Randomized trial of autologous filgrastim-primed bone marrow transplantation versus filgrastimmobilized peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in lymphoma patients. Thus, vesicles can enter a recycling endocytic compartment in which they may be temporarily stored within the cell for subsequent reinsertion into the plasma membrane. The roles of prostaglandin E receptor subtypes in the cytoprotective action of prostaglandin E2 in rat stomach. The generation of cultured red blood cells from amplified stem cells could meet this need, and this method is currently under development by researchers worldwide. They are relatively leaky and continually undergo change in barrier function in response to a constantly changing intestinal luminal milieu. Nguyen L, Li X, Duvall D, et al: Twice-daily plasma exchange for patients with refractory thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: the experience of the Oklahoma Registry, 1989 through 2006. Another contributing cause of ischemic renal failure involves the release of free plasma hemoglobin. This experience was notable for the achievement of complete remissions in four of six patients and the occurrence of renal graft rejection (transient and reversible) in only one patient.

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Subsequent refinements were made to reduce and then eliminate the transmission of viral and other pathogens present in the human plasma pool while increasing product purity. The Seattle consortium described the outcomes of 372 "older" patients (ages 60-75 years) receiving very low-intensity nonmyeloablative regimens. Recently, fiberoptic manometric catheters with 72, and potentially up to 144 sensors at more closely spaced. Epidermal growth factor activates phospholipase C-gamma 1 via G(i)1-2 proteins in isolated pancreatic acinar membranes. Tests of pancreatic function are based on measuring pancreatic bicarbonate or enzyme secretion or secondary effects due to the lack of enzymes in the intestine. Function of gastrointestinal smooth muscle: from signaling to contractile proteins. Side effects of this compound can be significant, however, and include nerve and muscle necrosis, sinoatrial node damage, calcium metabolism abnormalities, mucosal and skin irritation, adhesive emboli, limitation of aortic growth, and pseudoaneurysms. Evidence for a Na/K/Clcotransport system in basolateral membrane vesicles from the rabbit parotid. Oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal lesions induced by indomethacin in rats. Fecal microflora in healthy infants born by different methods of delivery: permanent changes in intestinal flora after cesarean delivery. Effect of fasting on the uptake of bilirubin and sulfobromophthalein by the isolated perfused rat liver. Enhancers located within two introns of the vitamin D receptor gene mediate transcriptional Chapter 63 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3: Synthesis, Actions, and Genome-scale Mechanisms in the Intestine and Colon 1705 154. The cells are diluted, and the mononuclear fraction is isolated using a Ficoll-Hypaque density cushion. Adherent surface mucus gel restricts diffusion of macromolecules in rat duodenum in vivo. Actuarial overall survival and event-free survival at 2 years after transplantation were 36% and 26%, respectively. A novel type of detergent-resistant membranes may contribute to an early protein sorting event in epithelial cells. Differential expression of P2X-purinoceptor subtypes in circular and longitudinal muscle of canine colon. In humans the receptor may function to transport IgE and IgE-allergen complexes back and forth across the mucosal barrier, similar to how FcRn may work for IgG transport. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research: Information on submitting an investigational new drug application. Ultimately, one species will reach a higher population density and force the competitor out of that habitat. In children and recipients of cord blood transplants, adenoviral disease is also common. Reduced susceptibility of mice overexpressing transforming growth factor alpha to dextran sodium sulphate induced colitis. Folate is also involved in the metabolism of several amino acids including homocysteine. The amino acid sequence of the cytochrome P450 proteins allows them to be classified into families and subfamilies based on homology. Simultaneous assessment of intestinal permeability and lactose tolerance with orally administered raffinose, lactose and L-arabinose. The exact nature of the antibodies involved in the various types of allergic reactions is unclear. After engraftment, allogeneic recipients are at risk for viral infection, particularly reactivation of herpes viruses such as cytomegalovirus. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy is a chronic disorder resulting in demyelination of peripheral nerves that result in weakness and sensory changes.

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The roles of bile salts in the uptake of beta-carotene and retinol by rat everted gut sacs. This mechanism is also known as "kiss and run," where the granule membrane is retrieved more or less intact and refilled for another round of exocytosis. More recently, an additional "occult" reflex has been described wherein colonic elongation, comparable to that evoked by a group of pellets, inhibits propulsive activity, particularly aborally. Effects of endocytosis inhibitors on internalization of human IgG by Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. In the case of a failed autograft, infusion of previously harvested and frozen marrow or blood cells frequently reestablishes functional hematopoiesis and hematologic improvement. Succession will be an important concept for understanding colonization of the gut by microbes. The vascular pattern of the intestinal villi in various laboratory animals and man. Cyclic interdigestive pancreatic exocrine secretion: is it mediated by neural or hormonal mechanisms. Functional Assays Flow cytometry detects residual cells by their ability to bind monoclonal antibodies. The resulting substrate metabolites are usually stable; however, it is at this step that many toxic metabolites are generated during hepatic drug metabolism. Specific groups of soluble proteins regulate the initiation, elongation, and termination phases of protein synthesis. Viscoelastic properties of human mesenchymally-derived stem cells and primary osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Subsequent characterization of Na reabsorption in salivary glands showed that the most important apical Na entry pathway is a Na conductance pathway. The inner gate residue Try290 also binds to the pyranose ring of the sugar in a stacking interaction. Protease-activated receptor-2 regulates bicarbonate secretion by pancreatic duct cells in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells promote intestinal epithelial restitution in vitro through an interleukin-2/interferon-gamma-dependent pathway. The continued permanent lifetime deferral in the United States (and other countries) of men who have had sex with men even once since 1977 may be inappropriate from a risk-benefit perspective in light of improvements in donor testing. Patients with chronic arthropathy often require surgical intervention, including synovectomy, debridement, joint replacement, or even joint fusion. Nitrergic neurons in the pancreas of newborn guinea pig: their distribution and colocalization with various neuropeptides and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. Inhibitory innervation of colonic smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. Passive chloride absorption is the major pathway for chloride uptake in the jejunum and is dependent on transmural potential differences and on concentration gradients. Homeostasis is accomplished by a variety of pumps and transporters that have specific distribution on both the plasma membrane and on the membranes of various organelles. Maintenance of the macromolecular barrier at cell extrusion sites in intestinal epithelium: physiological rearrangement of tight junctions. Transformation of local Ca2 spikes to global Ca2 transients: the combinatorial roles of multiple Ca2 releasing messengers. Melatonin promotes angiogenesis during protection and healing of indomethacininduced gastric ulcer: role of matrix metaloproteinase-2. At this point, the transfusion should be stopped and the patient given 25 to 50 mg of diphenhydramine, if there are no medical contraindications and if the patient had not already been maximally premedicated. In summary, it appears as though active proteolytic enzymes in the upper small intestine are central to a feedback mechanism regulating pancreatic secretion in rats, mice, hamsters, chickens, cows, pigs, and humans. For example, rectal distension can inhibit colonic motor activity, reduce jejunal phasic contractility, and delay gastric emptying in healthy subjects. Fluid loading of the human colon: effects on segmental transit and stool composition. Intracellular beta-carotene transport in bovine liver and intestine is not mediated by cytosolic proteins.

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Patients with disease progressing on a single antimold drug might need combination therapy with two antimold agents. J chain synthesis and secretion of hexameric IgM is differentially regulated by lipopolysaccharide and interleukin 5. Manometric techniques for the evaluation of colonic motor activity: current status. Molecular changes in the expression of human colonic nutrient transporters during the transition from normality to malignancy. The tyrosine kinase Yes regulates actin structure and secretion during pancreatic acinar cell damage in rats. Clonidine also improved diarrhea in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy and diarrhea,162 perhaps by improving intestinal absorption and restoring the sympathetic "brake" on colonic motility. Central vagal activation increases mucus gel thickness and surface cell intracellular pH in rat stomach. Kaji K, Norrby K, Paca A, et al: Virus-free induction of pluripotency and subsequent excision of reprogramming factors. Haploidentical family donors have the greatest genetic disparity but are usually also rapidly available. Third, individual methodologies in the presently available studies have varied markedly. Application of low-molecular weight polyethyleneglycol and a deterministic mathematical model for determining intestinal permeability in man. Cloning and expression of a novel pH-sensitive two pore domain K channel from human kidney. The explanation for differences in potency is not entirely clear, but it does not appear to be due to rates of fatty acid absorption. The most common adverse effect of both donor and therapeutic apheresis procedures is symptomatic hypocalcemia caused by infusion of calcium-chelating citrate ions in the anticoagulant, and if used as replacement fluid, anticoagulated donor plasma. Four different classes of serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatases have been identified in eukaryotic cells290: types 1, 2A, 2B, and 2C. The amount of current required is adjusted by a feedback circuit and measured continuously. Intestinal absorption of dietary cholesteryl ester is decreased but retinyl ester absorption is normal in carboxyl ester lipase knockout mice. Immunoglobulin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of children with chronic chest disease. Identification of a candidate membrane protein for the basolateral peptide transporter of rat small intestine. Unique role of junctional adhesion molecule-a in maintaining mucosal homeostasis in inflammatory bowel disease. Models for coupling of salt and water transport; Proximal tubular reabsorption in Necturus kidney. Bombesin stimulates bicarbonate secretion from rat cholangiocytes: implications for neural regulation of bile secretion. The magnitude of this component of paracellular flux does not vary substantially with solute radius, suggesting that these molecules traverse a size non-restricted route that is distinct from the claudin-based pore pathway. Cytoplasmic domains of the reduced folate carrier are essential for trafficking, but not function. Dual inhibitory mechanism of secretin action on acid secretion in totally isolated, vascularly perfused rat stomach. This distinction may be accomplished by measuring plasma levels of Transfusion reactions are further classified by their severity and imputability-that is, the likelihood that the reaction is attributable to infusion of the blood product being investigated. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics: approaches for modulating the microbial ecology of the gut. Massive transfusion in other conditions, such as liver, cardiac, or orthopedic surgery and obstetric hemorrhage, likely has a different pathophysiology; thus transfusion management of these patients may be different than for trauma patients. Mucous neck cells spend about 40 days in the neck region of the gland, and as they migrate to the base, they transform into chief cells that have an average life span of about 250 days.

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In recent times, the rate of transfusion and the donor exposure rate of premature infants have consistently declined. In vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer development in mice using high resolution chromoendoscopy. Adverse Events Plasma transfusion is associated with a number of infectious and noninfectious adverse events. M/N and S/s are homologous proteins encoded by adjacent genes and consequently show linkage disequilibrium in inheritance of the antigens. Na-gradient dependence of basic amino acid transport into rat intestinal brush border membrane vesicles. The portion of the restitution response regulated by chemotaxis versus chemokinesis in vivo is unclear, as is the extent to which mechanisms of woundinduced migration and chemotactic motility, as modeled in current cell culture models, are conserved. C and c antigens differ by four amino acids, but only residue Ser103Pro is predicted to be extracellular. The processing of blood of patients experiencing the initial symptoms of citrate toxicity should be temporarily halted until the symptoms abate and then resumed at a slower rate. A scanning electron microscopic study on the fractured rat parietal cells in resting state and after stimulation with tetragastrin. Mechanism of interferon-gamma-induced increase in T84 intestinal epithelial tight junction. Blood flow through the villous capillary network results in exchange of small solutes in the villous interstitium. All calbindin-immunoreactive myenteric neurons project to the mucosa of the guinea-pig small intestine. In recent years, significant progress has been made toward understanding the role of the early restitution phase of wound healing in maintaining a healthy intestinal barrier, as well as in delineating the signaling pathways involved in regulating epithelial cell migration into a wounded area. Its toxicity is similar to that of alloxan, which has long been used by investigators to induce diabetes in experimental animals. Brush border enzymes also hydrolyze sucrose and lactose to glucose, galactose, and fructose. These experiments are consistent with the hypothesis that targeting of ntcp to the plasma membrane is a 54. In principle, a low dose of platelets could be used to meet this daily requirement. For most hematologic malignancies, this occurs when a patient is at least 2 years off therapy. Overt and latent activities of diacylglycerol acytransferase in rat liver microsomes: possible roles in very-low-density lipoprotein triacylglycerol secretion. In addition to its well-defined role in the absorptive Chapter 66 Na/H Exchange in Mammalian Digestive Tract 1793 epithelium of renal proximal tubules (for a recent review, see Burckhardt et al. An intrinsic primary afferent neuron is identified by calbindin immunostaining (red). Regulation of the bone-specific osteocalcin gene by p300 requires Runx2/Cbfa1 and the vitamin D3 receptor but not p300 intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity. Gastrointestinal damage associated with the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Epidermal growth factor promotes the chemotactic migration of cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells. Contribution of solvent drag through intercellular junctions to absorption of nutrients by the small intestine of the rat. Chapter 61 Genetic Regulation of Intestinal Lipid Transport and Metabolism 1647 61. Intracellular pH in isolated Necturus antral mucosa in simulated ulcerogenic conditions. Using the geometric center for colonic transit at 48 hours, which is the preferred endpoint for identifying delayed colonic transit, 22.

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Interestingly, fibrinogen was also one of the first plasma products used, but it was soon taken off the market because it almost universally transmitted viral infections. The rate should be lowered to 1 mL/kg/hour for patients at risk for fluid overload. Thus, it is likely that IgG antibodies may also provide mucosal protection, particularly at sites with low proteolytic activity such as the respiratory and reproductive tracts. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine on discharge of vagal mucosal afferent fibres from the upper gastrointestinal tract of the ferret. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia may be associated with hypogammaglobulinemia and complications of repeated bacterial infections. This, however, does not directly preclude the existence of a causative role for autoreactive T cells. Experimental studies suggest that such conditioning is essential for the induction of thymic dysfunction, which is necessary for the development of the disease. Currently licensed products are produced in mammalian cell culture to optimize necessary posttranslational modifications required for biologic activity. The absorption of sulfur-labeled thiamin hydrochloride in control subjects and in patients with intestinal malabsorption. J chain-containing pIgA and pentameric IgM, but not J chain-deficient polymers or monomers of IgA, IgM, or other immunoglobulin isotypes, bind stably to human pIgR. It has been proposed that occult viable tumor cells collected with the graft and returned to the patient could act as a source for disease relapse. Occurring primarily in the cytosol, these reactions are catalyzed by the respective transferase enzymes. Intestinofugal neurons and sympathetic reflexes that bypass the central nervous system. Although these peptidases are present throughout the small intestine, their activities are much higher in the ileum than in the jejunum,6 implying that the ileal brush border membrane is capable of more extensive hydrolysis of peptides than the jejunal brush border membrane. Wekerle T, Kurtz J, Ito H, et al: Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with co-stimulatory blockade induces macrochimerism and tolerance without cytoreductive host treatment. A marked clinical benefit from gene therapy has been reported in one of the patients. Cytoplasmic dynein regulation by subunit heterogeneity and its role in apical transport. Furthermore, a number of therapeutic regimens exhibit gastrointestinal toxicity as a major side effect. Proper positioning may be verified fluoroscopically or by recovery of more than 90 ml after injection of 100 ml of water. The latter encodes the heavily glycosylated -subunit that protects the enzyme from degradation and is necessary for trafficking to and from the luminal membrane as well as / assembly. Regardless of cause, a mucosa denuded of epithelium is predicted to be a remarkably fragile structure to expose to the caustic luminal environment. Sudres M, Norol F, Trenado A, et al: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells suppress lymphocyte proliferation in vitro but fail to prevent graftversus-host disease in mice. The secretion of gene-encoded antimicrobial peptides and additional host defense proteins by small intestinal Paneth cells plays a major role in mediating this activity. Distinct effects of Ca2 ionophore A23187 and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate. The earliest histological description of what we now refer to as the "apical junction complex" comes from the late nineteenth century. Importance of an alkaline microenvironment for rapid restitution of the rabbit duodenal mucosa in vitro. The optimal product may be the one that gives rise to longer in vivo persistence and survival, which needs formal testing. Leukoencephalopathy has been primarily associated with methotrexateinduced injury of white matter. Anti-inflammatory role for intracellular dimeric immunoglobulin a by neutralization of lipopolysaccharide in epithelial cells. Direct evidence for a two-step assembly of ApoB48-containing lipoproteins in the lumen of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of rabbit enterocytes.

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Expression cloning of two genes that together mediate organic solute and steroid transport in the liver of a marine vertebrate. Finally, the study should have sufficient statistical power to detect a significant difference in outcome when one truly exists. They generate electrical slow waves, which then propagate through smooth muscle cells via gap junctions (reviewed 393); they influence the smooth muscle membrane potential and membrane potential gradient;159,186 and they mediate some of the mechanosensitivity of smooth muscle. This rise is usually not fully realized until approximately 24 hours after transfusion, when the plasma volume has had time to return to normal. Overexpression of Rab3D enhances regulated amylase secretion from pancreatic acini of transgenic mice. A multiple log decrease in antirecipient precursor helper T-cell frequency was demonstrated after ex vivo anergization. There now appears to be good evidence that both mechanisms exist, although their relative contributions may differ among species, between different segments of the ductal tree, and at different stages in the secretory response. One group of investigators found ghrelin receptors on rat pancreatic acinar cells, but the physiologic importance of these receptors remains to be established. An aliquot of tetramers is added to the peripheral blood mononuclear cells together with other antibodies for a more detailed characterization of antigenspecific T cells. By contrast, recipients of units highly mismatched (<6/10) to each other were more likely to have engraftment with only a single unit. The most common adverse effects of therapeutic apheresis are citrate-induced hypocalcemia, allergic reactions (usually to donor plasma or other blood components), vasovagal reactions, and hypovolemia. Cholecystokinin is a negative regulator of gastric acid secretion and postprandial release of gastrin in humans. In addition, ascending fibers from the inferior hypogastric plexus travel via superior hypogastric and aortic plexuses to reach the inferior mesenteric plexus, ultimately innervating the descending and sigmoid colon. It has been suggested that the prenatal appearance of these transport mechanisms in the small intestine may have physiological relevance, enabling the newborn to survive in case of premature birth and to absorb nutrients or factors that are essential for development from swallowed amniotic fluid. Evidence for the existence of a countercurrent exchanger in the small intestine in man. The distribution of receptors on the acinar cell surface might be related to the patterns of cell signaling. This, in turn, was thought to result from the loss of a tonic inhibitory influence from slc26a6. Chapter 63 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3: Synthesis, Actions, and Genome-scale Mechanisms in the Intestine and Colon J. In addition to orally active -lactam antibiotics, other pharmacologically active drugs such as captopril, bestatin, and renin inhibitors also appear to be absorbed in the small intestine, at least in part via the peptide transport system. Chapter 64 Mechanisms and Regulation of Intestinal Absorption of Water-soluble Vitamins 1723 64. Complications Associated With Massive Transfusion Patients requiring massive transfusion (frequently defined as the transfusion of one whole blood volume within a 12- to 24-hour period of time) are critically ill with multiple medical issues. Expression and characterization of a murine enzyme able to cleave -carotene: the formation of retinoids. The latter involves activation of both excitatory and inhibitory motor pathways to the circular muscle layer from myenteric neurons245 and shows complex pharmacological modulation that would be expected for any behavior pattern mediated by interacting neural circuits. Severe toxicity is most commonly experienced by small patients, particularly women, when the blood flow rate is rapid and the procedure is prolonged beyond a few hours. Regulation of intracellular pH by a neuronal homolog of the erythrocyte anion exchanger. Mohty M, Kuentz M, Michallet M, et al: Chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation: Long-term results of a randomized study. A role for Rho and Rac in secretagogue-induced amylase release by pancreatic acini.


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