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Systemic circulation is the high resistance circulation and pulmonary circulation is the low resistance circulation. Depending on the duration, it may be early diastolic, mid-diastolic, early systolic, pan-systolic, etc. Genesis and maintenance of action potentials, especially in cardiac and smooth muscles. Features of decompression sickness usually appear within half an hour of coming to the surface. There are three major prevertebral ganglia: celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior Adrenal Medulla Adrenal medulla is a neuroendocrine structure. Oxygen binds rapidly and reversibly to hemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin (HbO2): O2 + Hb HbO2 During this process of HbO2 formation, the heme remains in ferrous state. The chemical substances that mediate pain are hista mine, prostaglandins, serotonin, kinins and other poly peptides like leukotrienes. A summary of various liver function tests and their significance is depicted in Table 41. As the pulmonary vascular resistance is very high (because fetal lungs are collapsed), only a small quan tity of blood reaches left atrium through the pulmo nary veins. Regulation of secretion, mechanism of action, physiological actions and dysfunctions of aldosterone may come as a Long Question. Hypothalamus, via its endocrine influences also controls thirst, appetite, energy store, body fat composition, immu nity, behavior and visceral functions. Increased Ca++ influx causes neurotransmitter secretion that stimulates the afferent nerve. Na+ that enters cell is pumped out into interstitial space by Na+K+ pump, the activity of which is also promoted by aldosterone. The Rab family regulates rate of vesicle movement between cell organelles and the cell membrane. Pain Pathways Pain is transmitted to the higher centers in the brain in the lateral spinothalamic tract of the anterolateral system. The endometrium is vascularized with formation of more number of spiral arteries that increase blood supply to the deeper layers. This higher interstitial osmolality transfers water from tubular fluid leaving collecting duct and makes the urine concentrated. Transfer of organic and inorganic solutes from tubular fluid into the interstitial space creates the osmotic gradient for the reabsorption of water in the proximal tubule. Responses Responses consist of movement of body parts (motor activities), change in visceral functions (autonomic responses) or even the change in behavior of the individual. Note, muscle layer consisting of outer longitudinal and inner circular muscles is well developed. It is also observed that the onset of puberty is delayed in girls with lower body weight. They appear in the glands during puberty and then the number increases with the advancement of age. Hering-Breuer Reflex this reflex was described by Hering and Breuer in 1868, who found that lung inflation decreases tidal volume and increases respiratory frequency. Regulation of Testicular Functions the major function of testes is to secrete testicular hormones, especially testosterone that controls gametogenesis, sexual development and anabolic effects. The histamine released from local mast cells causes vasodilation and increases capillary permeability that results in extravasation of fluid. Closure of the umbilical vessels increases the total peripheral resistance and blood pressure. It is an inverted triangle with apex pointing towards the groin and the base between two shoulders. Source: Papers relating to pituitary body, hypothalamus and parasympathetic nervous system.

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Therefore, it sweeps the gastric and intestinal contents into the large intestine. Chapter 66: Physiology of Puberty and Menopause 585 Stages of Puberty In Boys the pubertal development in males occurs in five stages (by Tanner method, modified). Secretin stimulates pancreatic juice rich in aqueous (water and bicarbonate) component. Explain the mechanism of filtration across pulmonary capillaries and genesis of pulmonary edema. The gastric juice secreted in the cephalic phase occurs before food reaches the stomach. In fact, blood pressure is markedly increased by vasoconstriction Turbulent Flow the turbulent flow occurs when velocity is above critical velocity. In this condition, ventricular output is decreased due to impaired myocardial contractility. This is a spinal reflex integrated at lower lumbar and upper sacral segments of spinal cord (L5, S13). Therefore, not only the conjugation of bilirubin is impaired, but also some amount of conjugated bilirubin is not excreted in bile. Values vary greatly for race, age, gender, height, built and training of the individual. Radioiodine It causes progressive destruction of thyroid cells and achieves euthyroid state. Contraction of diaphragm also pushes the rib cage outward that enlarges the thoracic cavity in its antero posterior and lateral planes. Kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine or threonine residues in proteins and phosphatases remove phosphates from proteins. Haldane Effect When blood passes through pulmonary capillaries, oxygen diffuses into the blood and forms Oxy-Hb. It depends on the number of receptors present in the area where the stimulus is applied. Hb-dissociation curve (for whatever oxy-Hb is available) shifts to left signifying the decreased release of O2 from Hb. Diuretics: Diuretics are very useful for the treatment of cerebral and pulmonary edema. Sympathetic stimulation to sweat glands causes secretion of a watery fluid, and evaporation of body heat. The vessels are comparatively thin-walled and provide less resistance to flow in comparison to systemic vessels. This region receives inputs from descending fibers from the cortex and from fibers in the dorsal column pathways. The insulin receptor gene is located on the chromosome 19, which belongs to the superfamily of genes that code for other growth factors also. Stored potential energy in the stretched arterial wall contributes to the alteration in ventricular-aortic pressure gradient. The pulsatile component of absorbance represents the arterial oxygenated blood and the nonpulsatile component represents the deoxygenated capillary and venous blood. Due to loss of normal intrapleural pressure in this con dition, the lungs collapse immediately due to inward recoiling, and the rib cage expands outward due to its outward recoiling. Physiologically, this is called lengthening reaction as the response occurs due to lengthening of spastic muscle. The primary function of small intestine is to adequately mix the chyme with intestinal and pancreatic juice. Christian Bohr and Neils Bohr in 1904 demonstrated that respiratory acidosis shifts oxy-Hb dissociation curve to the right. The neural control of these breathing patterns depends on coordinated cyclical changes in the activity of cells primarily located in respiratory centers in the medulla in the brain. In case of Argyll Robertson pupil, accomodation reflex is not disrupted as it is not passing through pretectal nucleus and its pathway id as follows.

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The surface tension in the alveoli produces a force, which is directed inward, and therefore, tends to decrease the alveolar size. Usually in parties and special dinners, enough time is spent initially in taking soup and appetizers before actual dinner is served. Therefore, immediately the acidic chyme is neutralized by the aqueous component of pancreatic juice. In this feedback mechanism, the afferent signal satisfactorily interacts with the other signals arising from different parts of the supraspinal segments. Small arteries, arterioles and metarterioles are richly innervated by sympathetic fibers and offer maximum resistance to blood flow. Cytoplasm contains many organelles like endoplasmic reticulum, a prominent Golgi apparatus, many mitochondria and cytoskeletal elements that include microfilaments (neurofilaments) and microtubules. When transport of solutes and water occurs between the cells through tight junctions and lateral intercellular space, the process is called transport across the paracellular pathway. It is a congenital disease characterized by failure of development of Auerbach (myenteric) plexus with absence of postganglionic parasympa thetic neurons in the wall of distal part of colon. It starts rising following ovulation and reaches peak in 4 to 5 days after ovulation. Hemianesthesia Definition: Loss of sensations that affect face, arm, trunk and leg of one side of the body is called hemianesthesia. The relationship between flow, pressure, and resistance in a hydraulic system is well compared with the relationship between current, electromotive force, and resistance in an electrical circuit. The reference input comes from a combination of electrodes at different sites that roughly gives a zero potential. Aquaporins 1, 2 and 3 are found in kidney, aquaporin 4 is found in brain and aquaporin 5 is present in salivary and lacrimal glands and in respiratory tract. Brainstem Controlling Centers the activities of motor neurons and interneurons in the spinal cord are largely influenced by the descending inputs arising from the brainstem motor nuclei. Of these control processes, feedback control is the most common and developed mechanism for regulation of hormone secretion. The luteal phase remains constant and alteration in cycle occurs due to change in proliferative phase. Lateral System Pathways Lateral system pathways are pathways that descend down in the lateral column of the spinal cord: 1. However, once the lumen of veins becomes spherical pressure rises steeply, whereas in arteries, the pressure-volume relationship is almost linear. Slowly Adapting Receptors the slowly adapting receptors are located within the smooth muscle of conducting airways. Synthesis Estrogen is a steroid hormone, synthesized from cholesterol (Flowchart 70. The portal hypophyseal vessels directly connect between hypothalamus and anterior pituitary. This causes lipid malabsorption probably due to decreased surface area for absorption of lipids. Smoothening and coordination of movement and postural adjustments during movement are regulated mainly by the extrapyramidal systems that originate from the brainstem. When given orally, glucose stimulates secretion of hor mones from gastrointestinal tracts. In such patients, discontinuation of therapy causes sloughing of the uterine endometrium that produces bleeding. However, it is desirable to inject cortisol along with catecholamines as it maintains vascular reactivity. This property of liver tissue is used in liver transplantation, in which a small portion of transplanted liver tissue proliferates to become the normal size liver. Total volume is estimated and equivalent dead space volume is proportionately calculated from the total. Treatment of High Altitude Illness the individual who does not tolerate high altitude habitation should be brought to the low altitude at the earliest.

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Symport Mechanism the symport mechanism is the process of coupled transport of two or more solutes in same direction by a carrier protein. Amino acids from the tubular fluid are also reabsorbed by means of the carrier proteins that reabsorb Na+ and glucose (secondary active transport). Tubal factors: Partial or complete bilateral tubal obstruction resulting from infective or noninfective salpingitis prevents fertilization to occur. Stretch on muscle opens stretch-sensitive calcium channel on the muscle cell membrane. Na+ is actively absorbed from the colon and water follows along the osmotic gradient generated by absorption of Na+ and Cl-. Simultaneously, blood flows from the fetus into the capillaries of the chorionic villi via the umbilical arteries and come out of the villi back to the fetus via the umbilical vein. When P50 is increased (shift of the curve to right), affinity of Hb for oxygen is reduced that facilitates release of oxygen from Hb in the tissue. They stimulate synthesis of structural and enzymatic proteins In hypothyroid children, bone growth is slowed and epiphyseal closure is delayed. Shedding of endometrial tissue at the end of luteal phase results in menstrual bleeding. The hormonal abnormalities are broadly divided into pseudohermaphroditisms (both female and male patterns) and enzyme deficiencies. The balance between the prostacyclin and thrombox ane A2 determines the degree of platelet plug forma tion (refer to . Regulation of Luteinization Progesterone, estrogen and androgen are formed in corpus luteum. Permissive action, metabolic action, effects on blood cells and immunity are examples. When hyperbaric O2 is administered, the O2 transport in the dissolved form in the plasma increases. In examinations, "Composition and function of pancreatic secretion, and mechanism and regulation of pancreatic secretion" may come as a Long Question. Pacinian corpuscles, due to their large size are the beststudied receptors for studying the genesis of receptor potential. Such patients develop severe hypoxia during exercise due to their limited ability to deliver O2 to the tissue. Adequate stimulus the particular form of energy to which the receptor is most sensitive is called adequate stimulus. Functional Residual Capacity this is the volume of air remaining in the lungs at the end of each tidal expiration. Degradation the steps of degradation of epinephrine and norepinephrine are summarized in Flowcharts 58. The process of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of cellular proteins is important in control of some ligand signaling pathway, which is referred to as phosphate timer. It increases number of calcium pumps in the epithelial cells of proximal and distal tubules. This in turn causes contraction of smooth muscle and increases vascular tone, which increases blood pres sure. Patients with increased airway resistance are usually dyspneic, which depends on severity of airway obstruction. On the contrary, resistance is inversely proportional to the radius (discussed below). Measurement of Ventilatory Functions Most of the pulmonary functions are measured by spirometry. The sensory innervation to the visceral organs inclu ding blood vessels and cutaneous structures forms the afferent limb of autonomic reflexes. The increase in fiber length increases stroke volume almost linearly till the physiological limit is reached. The features of dorsal root involvement depend on severity and distribution of the fibers. P2X receptors are ligand-gated ion channel receptors that have seven subtypes: P2X1 to P2X7. Calcitonin Escape Injection of calcitonin produces hypocalcemia mainly by antiosteoclastic activity.

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He also studied the mechanism of secretion, showing the relation of blood capillaries to glandular structures. Internal Structures of Kidney When the kidney is cut vertically into two halves, two distinct regions are seen: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. These receptors are branched, knobby and intertwined terminals of myelinated nerve fibers. They also serve as part of nonspecific defense system of the body by removing dust, bacteria, and harmful gases from the respiratory tract. However, their increased urinary concentration in prepubertal girls indicates specific congenital defect in cortisol secretion (due to disease of the adrenal cortex, not the ovary). The Na+ gradient can be decreased either by increasing the intracellular Na+ or by decreasing the extracellular Na+. Sympathetic Nuclei Sympathetic fibers originate from vasomotor center in the medulla and project to the intermediolateral horn of spi nal cord via bulbospinal pathway. Factors Affecting Peripheral Resistance Peripheral resistance depends mainly on diameter of blood vessel and viscosity of blood. Though, they comprise a dense capillary bed, they are not arranged as a network of tubular vessels as seen in systemic capillary bed. The muscles that oppose the movement (increase the angle at the joint) are called as antagonists. Hemoglobin that binds with oxygen is called oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and the hemoglobin that does not bind with O2 is called deoxyhemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) or reduced-hemoglobin. Capillary Fluid Shift When blood pressure decreases significantly as in acute hemorrhagic shock, the hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries decreases. On the contrary, deficiency of glucagon produces hypoglycemia and its excess worsens diabetes mellitus. Local sign: the pattern of response of flexor withdrawal reflex depends on the nature and the location of the stimulus. This is to differentiate from the transcellular pathway of transport in which transport occurs through the cell. The capillary distension that decreases resistance increases the capillary surface area, which facilitates diffusion of gases along the alveolarcapillary mem brane. Many of these chemicals affect vascular tone by mainly altering the intracellular calcium concentration in vas cular smooth muscle. Damage to postcentral gyrus also causes impairment of kinesthesia (inability to appreciate passive position and movements of different body parts). Esophagus is a unique structure having both striated and smooth muscle, and both the muscle are innervated by vagus nerve. The disease is treated by dopaminergic drugs that inhibit the secretion of prolactin. Stage of Shock As soon as the section is made, animal enters into the stage of shock (spinal shock). The dermal arteriolar arcade also pro vides vessels that supply hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat glands. The membrane is rapidly depolarized to the firing level and the depolarization phase of the action potential becomes steeper. Course Fibers arising from different parts of the cortical areas con verge through the posterior limb of the internal capsule. These conditions are treated by injection of sclerosing agents or by using elastic stockings. That means, maturation of surfactant production continues to the perinatal period. For example, normally glucose is not present in urine and its renal threshold is 180 mg% in venous plasma (200 mg% in arterial plasma). Through precise and harmonious movements, one expresses his best abilities like an artist drawing a beautiful picture or a surgeon performing a successful operation etc. Efferent Pathways and Effector Organs Efferent fibers for baroreceptors are sympathetic fibers and vagus nerve. Most of the proteins in plasma are larger molecules and therefore can not be filtered.

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Fat pad in lower neck and interscapular region gives the typical appearance of buffalo hump. Stimulation of cardio inhibitory center causes bradycardia and stimulation of vasomotor center causes vasoconstriction. However, in Indian spiritual scriptures, it has been noted that sperms in the body are converted into vital energy, which can be further transformed into spiritual energy if properly utilized with the help of higher spiritual forces. Size, shape and electrical charge of the macromole cules Molecular size determines the filterability of the substance: a. In the method of recording by bipolar leads, two electrodes are placed on the body surface and the potential difference between these two electrodes is recorded. Control of movements of one side of the body: Motor cortex of one side is connected to the cerebellar hemisphere of opposite side through a closed feedback circuit, known as cerebralcerebellarcerebral circuit via cortico-ponto-dentato-thalamo-cortical connections. However, influence of vestibulospinal tract on muscle tone is not affected (as it terminates mainly on motor neurons that contact extrafusal fibers) indicating that this tract acts through motor neurons. Note, the molecule containing A and B chains and connecting peptide (C peptide) is folded. Dynamic pressure is the component of pressure, which is affected by the kinetic energy of flow; for example, increase in flow increases the dynamic component. Source Relaxin is secreted from corpus luteum, placenta, uterus and breast tissue in females, and prostate glands in males. Sometimes it may be iatrogenically-induced following treatment of mother with androgens or progestational drugs. Colonic movements, Mass peristalsis, Colonic reflexes, Gastrocolic reflex, Defecation reflex, may come as Short Questions. However, O2 from hemoglobin molecule in the red cells of pulmonary capillaries to enter into alveolar lumen (or the transport in the reverse direction), passes through 10 layers. Venous return is also assisted by contraction of the skeletal muscles of the limb in which the veins are located. The increase in volume of blood in veins does not affect significant change in pressure up to a point beyond which the pressure rises steeply. Therefore, the portion of blood, which is available at the periphery of blood vessel (close to the vessel wall) has low cell content. Convergence means many to one projection, in which many presynaptic neurons project to a single postsynaptic neuron. Note, normally a balance is maintained between the amount of iodide presented to extracellular fluid from intestine and the amount excreted from the body (in urine and stool). In the reperfused areas, increased accumulation of calcium (due to exchange of excess sodium for intracellular calcium) also causes tissue damage. Frequently, administered diuretics are loop diuretics, aldosterone antagonists, thiazide diuretics, carbonic anhydrase inhibi tors, xanthines, large quantities of osmotically active sub stances, ethanol, acidifying salts, vasopressin antagonists, and water. Details of dwarfisms are discussed in the chapter "Physiology of Growth and Development" in Section 13. The lungs have the tendency to collapse and the chest wall has the tendency to expand. The gland is highly vascular and receives blood from three sources: branches of aorta, renal arteries, and phrenic arteries. The postganglionic sympathetic axons then travel in the cervical and lumbosacral spinal nerves. Example of compressive neuropathy is entrapment of median nerve in carpal tunnel (carpal tunnel syndrome). When the biological effects are more, the hormone secretion decreases appropriately to maintain normal function of the hormone (Flowchart 52. Gastric distension, spicy food, emotion and stress are important stimulant for gastric secretion. Non-Cluster Region the non-cluster region is present more rostrally in the dorsal column nuclei. Possibly, the balance is due to release of chemicals (some paracrine signals) from the osteoblasts or osteoclasts.


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The mucin secreted by mucous cells is of two types: the insoluble mucin, and the soluble mucin. Motor cortex contributes to 60% of fibers (30% from area 4 and 30% from area 6) and sensory cortex con tributes to 40% of fibers in the corticospinal tract. It inhibits absorption of glucose, and triglycerides from the mucosal epithelial cells of intestine. In nonpregnant woman, it is secreted from corpus luteum in the secretory phase of menstrual cycle. Thus, when it contracts, the dome is flattened and abdo minal contents are pushed downward so that the tho racic cavity enlarges in its rostrocaudal extent. Another cause of steatorrhea is impaired reabsorp tion of bile salts in the distal ileum. After few such contractions, pylorus opens partially with a narrow opening at the center. The epithelial cells are flat with relatively smooth apical and basolateral membranes. Control of Secretion and Major Effects Secretion of anterior pituitary is controlled by hypothalamic hormones. The binding of hormone with the receptor causes conformational change in the receptor that exposes the intracellular sites of the receptor for autophosphorylation. This book is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in providing professional medical services. Few fibers from the interneurons terminate on the same side of medial group of motor neurons. The patients with increased airway resistance often present serious mechanical problems and develop dyspnea. With 1 cm increase in height above the heart, the hydrostatic pressure falls by 0. Evidences suggest that blood vessels of heart, lungs, kidney and uterus also receive some cholinergic innervation. Neurophysin serves as carrier protein to transport the hormone from the cell body to the axon terminals. D dependent rickets (Hereditary deficiency of 1 a-hydroxylase, an autosomal recessive disorder). Secretion of interior pituitary hormones is controlled primarily by hypothalamic hormones. Therefore, permeability of cationic molecules is more than neutral and anionic molecules. The patient develops clinical features of hyperaldosteronism, though the plasma aldosterone and plasma renin activity remains low. In a typical female pseudohermaphrodite, the individual possesses ovaries, oviducts, but there is varying degrees of masculine differentiation of external genitalia. Chemoreceptor Reflex Chemoreceptors are stimulated by change in chemical composition of blood as occurs in hypoxia, hypercapnia and acidosis. The fibers of these tracts are placed in the lateral funiculus in the spinal cord and fibers terminate on the motor neurons that are placed laterally in the ventral horn of the spinal cord, i. Parasympathetic Control Penile erection is mainly achieved by parasympathetic activity that relaxes smooth muscles of corpora, causes vasodilation and increases blood flow to the corporal interstices. Acid also stimulates release of secretin, which inhibits gastrin secretion from G cells. Effects on Body Temperature Immediately after ovulation, there is a small increase (approximately 0. Prolonged bed rest Chapter 100: Pathophysiology of Hypertension and Hypotension 865 Acute Hypotension When blood pressure falls suddenly, the condition is called acute hypotension. The receptors are lung, airway and chest wall mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors that respond to changes in blood pH and gas tensions.

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In mammals, especially in humans, milk secreted from breast (for breastfeeding) is the chief source of nutrition for the offspring. Oxygen saturation remains normal because oxygen content and capacity are proportionately reduced. From muscles, input reaches spinal cord via muscle afferents (Ia, Ib and other afferents). Structured Presentation: Every chapter is divided into various parts by different headings and subheadings with different fonts and colors. Hypothalamus also mediates the effects of cardiovas cular reflexes such as atrial stretch reflex. Sometimes, the stages of development of sperms are collectively called as spermatogenic cycle. In fact, during moderate to severe exercise, a trained athlete achieves the target alveolar ventilation by mainly increasing the depth rather than the frequency of breathing (Application Box 105. Release of neurotransmitter from glomus cell triggers action potential in 9th cranial nerve. Difference in Distribution of Left and Right Sympathetic Fibers There is some difference in distribution of left and right sympathetic fibers supplying the heart. Some of the Fe++ in the enterocytes is oxidized to the ferric form, which bind with apoferritin to form ferritin. There are two sets of cholinergic recep tors on the target cells: muscarinic and nicotinic. The processed signal is then transformed into other signals in sensory networks in the brain. Positive Pressure Method this is usually used in operation theaters during surgery. Regular exercise: Morning walk and freehand exercises improve insulin release and decreases insulin resistance. An electrical field and a dipole in it can be created by connecting a solution containing charged ions to a source of volts like a battery. Physiological Classification of Blood Vessels Functionally, blood vessels are classified into four categories: Windkessel vessels, resistance vessels, exchange vessels and capacitance vessels. However, renal vasodilation effect of prostaglandins in shock protects kidney by opposing the sympathetic constrictor activity and maintaining renal blood flow. Increased Hydrostatic Pressure of Capillaries Capillary hydrostatic pressure increases in following conditions: 1. He is remembered for his classic description of pathways of conduction in tracts in spinal cord. Consequently, a fresh contraction cannot occur before the completion of the previous mechanical response. Hormone metabolism and clearance: Binding with carrier protein influences metabolism and removal of hormone from circulation. Developmental Abnormalities the developmental abnormalities are mainly hormonal disorders. Vagus nerve inner vates heart and sympathetic fibers innervate heart and blood vessels. The failure of the closure of ductus arteriosus results in flow of blood from the aorta to the pulmonary artery, as the pressure in the aorta is more. Secretory Cells of Kidney the secretory or endocrine cells in kidney are mainly two types: 1. Circulating free form concentration provides feedback effect on regulation of hormone secretion. Ultrafiltration, the first step in urine formation occurs in the renal corpuscle in which plasma is differentially filtered to form the tubular fluid.

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Fat cells secrete a group of hormones called adipokines that influence insulin resistance. This change in membrane potential, also called synaptic potential, creates signal in the postsynaptic neuron. It is the only hormone that decreases plasma glucose level (decreases basal glucose level and also pre vents rise in plasma glucose following feeding). A chronically dilated heart may develop muscle fibrosis and fail to relax properly causing diastolic dysfunction that shifts the pressure-volume curve of left ventricle to left (refer. Features of cerebellar disorder depend on the part of cerebellum affected and whether the cortex or the deep cerebellar nuclei are involved in the disease process. In veins, initially there is no appreciable increase in pressure with the volume increase. This manifests with severe headache, tachycardia, palpitation, extreme anxiety, perspiration, either pallor or flushing, severe rise in blood pressure and a feeling of impending death. If the nylon stocking is overstretched, it loses its elasticity and becomes loose (baggy). When there is defect in the alveolar-capillary membrane (thickening of the membrane) - Asbestosis - Sarcoidosis - Progressive systemic sclerosis - Collagen diseases - Interstitial edema - Interstitial fibrosis - Diffuse metastatic lesions of the lung Increase in Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity 1. When hypo thyroidism develops from or before birth, the patients are called cretins. Epinephrine is injected in anaphylactic shock that increases blood pressure by causing vasoconstriction and by increasing cardiac output. Systemic illness: Amenorrhea occurs in chronic illnesses like chronic hypothyroidism, chronic renal failure and cirrhosis of liver. During this phase, respiration is reflexly inhibited due to inhibition of respiratory centers. Normally, in the presence of adequate oxygen in the tissues, subunits are rapidly removed from the cells. But, when many afferent neurons projecting on a single motor neuron are Habituation Usually, the reflex responses are stereotyped. Therefore, normally a disease process involves a bronchopulmonary segment at a time. Hence, left ventricle pumps blood at a much higher pressure (to overcome the systemic resistance) than the right ventricle. Fusion of synaptic vesicle with cell membrane is facilitated by synaptobrevin, a v-snare protein present in vesicular membrane, and syntaxin, a t-snare protein present in the cell membrane. However, as the production of aldosterone and corticosterone is normal, elevated level of mineralocorticoids result in hypertension and hyperkalemia. Affinity to brain tissue Unconjugated bilirubin More Absent Present High Conjugated bilirubin Less (< 0. Rarely the diseases of motor cortex, cauda equina, or peripheral nerves cause paraplegia. Urine volume decreases in excessive sweating, hot climate, dehydration, hypotension, hypovolemia, kidney diseases, acute renal failure, antidiuretic therapy, edema due to variety of causes, and shock. Uterine Changes During the luteal phase, progesterone secretion increases significantly. A transient alteration in plasma calcium is balanced by entry or extrusion of calcium from the intracellular or extracellular reservoirs. Activation of nociceptors directly releases polypeptide mediator by the primary afferent fibers that sensitizes nociceptors. Name the sensations carried in dorsal column pathways, Name the sensations carried in anterolateral system, Trace the pathway for each dorsal column sensation, Trace the pathway for crude touch, What are the receptors for various sensations and their pathways, Define anesthesia and what are the causes, Define dissociated anesthesia and what are the causes, Define hyperesthesia and what are the causes, Define alloesthesia and what are the causes, Define paraesthesia and what are the causes, Define agraphesthesia and what are the causes, Define asteriognosis and what are the causes, What is Rhomberg sign. Also, during insulin secretion, some amount of proin sulin is secreted from the granules.

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