[* Indicates books required for the course.]

*_______ (1953). The holy bible: Revised standard version. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons.

__________ (1985). A course in miracles: Combined volume. Tiburon, CA: Foundation for Inner Peace.

Almaas, A. H. (1990). The pearl beyond price: Integration of personality into Being: An object relations approach. Berkeley, CA: Diamond Books.

*Arguelles, Jose & Miriam (1985). Mandala. Boston: Shambhala.

Arrien, A. (1987). The Tarot handbook: Practical applications of ancient visual symbols. Sonoma, CA: Arcus.

*Arrien, A. (1993). The Four-fold way:Walking the paths of the warrior, teacher, healer and visionary. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco.

*Assagioli, R. (1978). The act of will. New York: Penguin Books.

Assagioli, R. (1965). Psychosynthesis. New York: Viking Press.

Barendson, Kristin. (1997). Sing the Body Ecstatic! In Yoga Journal, March/April, pp. 92-99, 155-8, 166.

Blankenhorn, D. (1995). Fatherless America: Confronting our most urgent social problem. NY: Basic Books.

*Bly, R. & Woodman, M. (1993). Facing the shadow in men and women. (audio tapes) Pacific Grove, CA: Oral Tradition Archives, P. O. Box 51155.

Bruner, J. S. & Olver, R. R. (1963). Development of equivalence transformations in children. In J. C. Wright & J. Kagan (Eds.), Basic cognitive processes, pp125-141. Lafayette: Child Development Publications, 28 (2).

Bugental, J.F.T. (1989). The search for authenticity: An existential-analytic approach to psychotherapy. New York: Irvington.

Buss, D. M. (1994) The evolution of desire: Strategies of human mating. NY: Basic Books.

Casteneda, C. (1974). Tales of power. New York: Pocket Books.

Cohen, K. (1999). The Practice of Qigong: Meditation and Healing. Voices of wisdom: A sounds true catalog, 57.

Conwell, A. (1997) Soundless Sound. Yoga International Journal, June/July, 25- 29.

Crenshaw, R. L. (1996). The alchemy of love and lust: Discovering our sex hormones and how they determine who we love, when we love, and how often we love. NY: G. P. Putnam's Sons.

*Crum, T. F. (1987). The magic of conflict: Turning a life of work into a work of art. New York: Simon & Schuster.

*Desai, N. (1980). Handbook for Satyagrahis: A manual for volunteers of total revolution. New Delhi: Gandhi Peace Foundation; Philadelphia: Movement for a New Society.

Diamond, J. (1997). Male menopause. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks.

*Easwaran, E. (1984). To love is to know Me. Petaluma, CA: Nilgiri Press.

Egan, G. (no date). Face to face: The small-group experience and interpersonal growth. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Erikson, E. (1968). Identity, youth and crisis. New York: Norton.

*Feng, G. and English, J. (Eds.) (1972). Tao te Ching. New York: Vintage Books.

Ferguson, M. (1980). The aquarian conspiracy: Personal and social transformation in the 1980's. Los Angeles: Tarcher.

Fields, R., Taylor, P., Weyler, R. & Ingrasci, R. (1984). Chop wood, carry water: A guide to finding spiritual fulfillment in everyday life. New York: Tarcher.

Fox, M. (1983). Original blessing: A primer in creation spirituality presented in four paths, twenty-six themes, and two questions. Santa Fe: Bear & Co.

Fraunfelker, B. (1972). Phonetic compatibility (PC) in paired-associate learning of first and third grade children. Developmental Psychology, 1(1970),

Gendlin, E. T. (1988). Focusing. NY: Bantam.

Goldman, J. S. (1996). Healing sounds: The power of harmonics. Boston: Element MA.

Goldman, J. S. (1991). Cymatics: The Sound of Healing. RMSEN Times, November.

*Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

Goleman, D. (1999). Lecture on "Emotional Intelligence," PBS TV, March 6, 7:30.

Govinda, L. A. (1982). Foundations of Tibetan mysticism. York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser.

Gray, E. D. (1982). Patriarchy as a conceptual trap. Wellesley, MA: Roundtable Press.

Grof, S. & Grof, C. (1987). Holotropic Therapy. New realities, March/April, 7- 9, 54-58.

Grof, C. (1993). The Thirst for Wholeness: Addiction and the Spiritual Path. ReVision, Vol. 15, No. 4, 162-168.

Gyaltsen, K. K. & Rogers, K. (1986). The garland of Mahamudra practices: A translation of Kunga Rinchen's Clarifying the jewel rosary of the profound fivefold path. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications.

*Holmes, K. (Ed.) (no date). Way to go: Sowing the seed of Buddha. Dumfriesshire: Kagyu Samye-Ling. (Kagyu Samye-Ling Tibetan Centre, Eskdalemuir, Nr. Langholm, Dumfriesshire, DG13 OQL) ( this is apparently published in the far east. The full address is: Eskdalemuir, Nr. Langholm, Dumfriesshire, DG13 OQL)

Houston, V. (1993). Sanskrit: A Sacred Model of Language - Part II. Sanskrit Today, Spring, 1-3. (write to the American Sanskrit Institute at 73 Four Corners Rd., Warwick, NY 10990 (Phone 914-986-8652).

*Huxley, A. (1982). The art of seeing. Berkeley: Creative Arts Book Co.

Iyer, R. (Ed.) (1983). The Gospel according to Thomas. New York: Concord Grove Press.

*Iyer, R. (Ed.) (1983). Return to Shiva: From the Yoga Vasishtha Maharamayana. New York: Concord Grove Press.

Iyer, I. (Ed.) (1983). The Diamond Sutra with supplemental texts. New York: Concord Grove Press.

Jaynes, J. (1976). The origin of consciousness in the breakdown of the bicameral mind. Boston: Houghteon Mifflin.

*Johari, H. (1987). Chakras: Energy centers of transformation. Rochester, VT: Destiny Books.

Johnsen, L. (1998). Compassion Born of Rage. Yoga Journal, November/Dcember, 68-75, 135-8.

Johnson, R. A. (1986). Inner work: Using dreams and active imagination for personal growth. New York: HarperSanFrancisco.

Kabir (1994). Darshan, 92, November, p. 60

Kagan, J., Spencer & Madsen, M. C. (1972). Experimental Analyses of Cooperation and Competition of Anglo-American and Mexican Children. Developmental Psychology, 6, 49-59.

Keen, S. (1999). Fear in the Belly. Yoga Journal, May/June, 58-63, 138-9, 149-51.

*Kohn, A. (1986). No contest: The case against competition. Boston: Houghton- Mifflin.

*Kornfield, J. (1993). A path with heart: A guide through the perils and promises of spiritual life. New York: Bantam.

Kneen, C. (1999). Shambhala Warrior Training. Voices of wisdom: Voices of wisdom: A sounds true catalog, 10.

Lasater, J. (1999). Return to Stillness. Yoga Journal, July/August, 84-87.

Lee, V. (1997). Moment to moment: An interview with Jon Kabat-Zinn. Common Ground, 147.

Maccoby, E. E. and Jacklin, C. (1974) The psychology of sex differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Mahler, M., Pine, F. and Bergman, A. The psychological birth of the human infant. New York: Basic Books, 1975.

Masters, W. H. and Johnson, V. E. (1966). Human sexual response. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

*May, R. (1972). Power and innocence: A search for the sources of violence. New York: Dell.

Miller, D. P. (1992). My Healing Journey Through Chronic Fatigue. Yoga journal, November/December, 61-67, 123-5.

Miller, A. (1990). For your own good: Hidden cruelty in child-rearing and the roots of violence. New York: The Noonday Press.

Mitchell, S. (1991). The Gospel according to Jesus: A new translation and guide to his essential teachings for believers and unbelievers. New York: HarperCollins.

*Moore, M. M. & Franklin, J. (Eds.)(1991). Bartholomew: Planetary brother. Taos, NM: The High Mesa Foundation.

*Narayan, R. K. (1977). The Ramayana: A shortened modern prose version of the Indian epic. New York: Penguin Books.

*Pearce, J. C. (1989). Magical child: Rediscovering nature's plan for our children. New York: Bantam.

*Peck, M. S. (1981). People of the lie: The hope for healing human evil. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Pelletier, K. R. (1977). Mind as healer, mind as slayer: A holistic approach to preventing stress disorders. NY: Delta.

Persky, H.m Smith, K. D., and Basu, G. K. (1971). Relation of Psychologic Measures of Aggression and Hostility to Testosterone Production in Man. Psychosomatic Medicine, 33, (No. 3), 265-277.

Pert, C. (1987). Neuropeptides: The emotions and bodymind. Noetic Sciences Review, No. 2, Spring, 13-18.

* Phillips, R. (1990). Emergence of the divine child: Healing the emotional body. Santa Fe: Bear & Co.

Pike, J. A. (1955). Doing the truth: A summary of Christian ethics. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

Prescott, J. W. (1975). Body Pleasure and the Origins of Violence. The Futurist, 1975, April, 64-74.

Purce, Jill. The mystic spiral: Journey of the soul. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1980.

Radha, S.R. (no date). Power of Mantras. Spokane, WA: Timeless Books.

*Radha, Swami S. (1987). The Divine Light Invocation. Spokane: Timeless Books.

Radha, S. (1978). Kundalini: Yoga for the West. Spokane, WA: Timeless Books.

*Rama, Swami, Ballentine, R. & Ajaya, Swami (1976). Yoga and psychotherapy: The evolution of consciousness. Honesdale, PA: The Himalayan International Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy.

Richmond, L. (1998). Work as a spiritual practice: A practical Buddhist approach to inner growth and satisfaction on the job. New York: Broadway Books.

Rilke, R. M. (1996). Rilke: Poems. New York: Knopf.

Ring, K. (1998). What's the William James Center up to these Days? Palo Alto, CA: Focus: The newsletter of The Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, 5 (4).

Ring, K. (1999). Near death and out-of-body experiences in the blind: A study of apparent eyeless vision. Palo Alto, CA: The William James Center for Consciousness Studies (in press).

Robinson, J. M. (Ed.) (1977). The Nag Hammadi Library. San Francisco: Harper & Row.

Rosen, R. (1998). The Truth is Pathless, But There is a Path to the Truth. Yoga Journal, 92-99, 151-2.

Sadhu, M. (1978). The Tarot. No. Hollywood, CA: Wilshire Book Co.

Sadhu, Mouni. (1978). The Tarot: A contemporary course of the quintessence of Hermetic occultism. No. Hollywood, CA: Wilshire Book Co.

Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Shafii, M. (1988). Freedom from the self: Sufism, meditation and psychotherapy. New York: Human Sciences Press.

Simon, R. (1972). The Sound of Silence. Simon and Garfunkel's Greatest Hits (cassette tape). New York: Columbia Records/CBS, 51 W. 52nd St.

Smith, P. C. & Waite, A. E. (1971) The Rider Tarot deck. New York: U. S. Games Systems, Inc.

Sullivan, H. S. (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York: Norton.

Tagore, R. (Transl.) (1995). Songs of Kabir. York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser.

Taimni, I. K. (1975). The science of Yoga: The Yoga-sutras of Patanjali in Sanskrit with transliteration in Roman, translation in English and commentary. Wheaton, IL: The theosophical Publishing House.

Tarnas, R. (1998). The Great Initiation. Noetic Sciences Review, No. 47, 24- 31, 57-59.

Tavris, C. (1992). The mismeasure of woman: Why women are not the better sex, the inferior sex, or the opposite sex. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Toben, Bob & Fred Alan Wolf. Space-time and beyond: Toward an explanation of the unexplainable. New York, E. P. Dutton, 1982.

*Trungpa, C. (1984). Shambhala: The sacred path of the warrior. Boulder: Shambhala.

*Trungpa, C. (1976). The myth of freedom and the way of meditation. Boulder: Shambhala.

Tyberg, J. M. (1970). The language of the gods: Sanskrit keys to India's wisdom. Los Angeles: East-West Cultural Centre.

Upledger, J. E. & Vredevoogd, J. D. (1983). Craniosacral therapy. Seattle: Eastland Press.

Vaughn-Lee, L. (1999). Love is a Fire and I am Wood: The Sufi's Mystical Journey Home. Voices of wisdom: A sounds true catalog, 24.

Vivekananda, S. (1976). Jnana yoga, 5th Ed.. Hollywood, CA: Vedanta Press.

*Washburn, Michael. The ego and the dynamic ground: A transpersonal theory of human development, 2nd Ed. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1995.

*Welwood, J. (Ed.) (1983). Awakening the heart: East/west approaches to psychotherapy and the healing relationship. Boulder: New Science Library.

*Wilber, Ken. No boundary: Eastern and western approaches to personal growth. Boulder: Shambhala, 1981.

*Wolf, Fred Alan. The spiritual universe: How quantum physics proves the existence of the soul. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1996.

Yasodhara Ashram Society (Ed.) (1979). Mantras, bhajans, songs. Spokane: Timeless Books.

*Yasodhara Ashram Society (ED.) Hari Om (cassette tape). Spokane: Timeless Books.

*Zweig, C. & Wolf, S. (1997). Romancing the shadow: Illuminating the dark side of the soul. New York: Ballentine.



Concrete Operational Thought

"Concrete operations" is a term coined by Jean Piaget, a Swiss epistemologist who studied children of all ages in order to discover how they learned and the progression of cognitive skills as they emerged. His work has provided a foundation for development of educational curricula in our schools and for continuing research into the cognitive processes of children and adolescents. As far as I know right now, his findings were limited to children who grew up and were educated in western countries/cultures that value rational thinking. So he did not tell us anything about the development of intuition. Some of his most important concepts follow.

Decentration. Concrete operational thought depends upon the ability to decenter oneself, to become objective about what one is observing. This means that we have to go beyond what the senses apparently are telling us and bring our reasoning ability to bear upon a phenomenon in order to gain the correct information about it. We also have to conform to the differing perspectives of others in order to arrive at consensual validation about our perceptions of the world around us and our interpretations of reality. This enables social organization and communication.

Seriation. This is the ability to arrange objects along a continuum according to increasing or decreasing value or order. For example, a child could arrange a handful of licorice sticks in a row of increasing length. Or another child could lay out a row of nails in increasing or decreasing length or thickness. This has applications in arithmetic as well as in dividing up Halloween candy.

Conservation. This requires a kind of detachment from the obvious. It is the ability to recognize that, as long as nothing is added or taken away, two equal quantities remain equal. This seems obvious on the surface, but take the water glass problem, for example. If I take a given quantity of water and pour it from a tall, thin glass into a short, fat glass and am depending upon my senses entirely for information, I might think there is now less water in the second glass. Or, if I am attending to the width rather than the height of the water, I might think there was more water. What is required to gain the proper conclusion is the ability to reason that, if I do not take away or add any water, there has to be the same amount regardless of appearances. This example requires conservation of substance. Similar processes occur with respect to number, weight, length, space and volume. Popcorn, for instance, weighs the same popped as unpopped but the apparent difference in size will fool a small child.

Reversibility. Reversibility refers to the ability to return to the starting place in thought and is the basic mechanism for logical thinking. I can mentally cancel an operation and go back to the beginning. For example: If I know that 2 + 3 = 5, then I can reverse my thinking to undertand that 5 = 2 + 3 or 5= 3 + 2. Or, if I am doing the arithmetic problem and say that 2 + 3 = 6 and am corrected, I can go back and start over until I get it right. On a more sophisticated level, if I am trying to solve a problem and my first attempt fails, I can retrace my thoughts to the original parameters looking for the error, and if I do not find it I can begin again. Balancing a check book is a case in point.

Hierarchial classification. This is the ability to group things or ideas into concepts, then treat the concepts as if they were a single thing and arrange them into hierarchial categories. This requires the verbal mediation we encountered in Book II. At first children need the objects in front of them to proceed, but eventually, in adolescence, they become able to perform these operations in thought only. Classification requires decentration because it may be necessary to shift focus from one attribute or characteristic to another or to base the concept on two attributes simultaneously. For instance, a person could form a concept based on both shape and color such as red squares or shapely blondes. To take this a step further, one could then arrange women (or men) in a hierarchial classification scheme according to one's personal preferences.



Dream Interpretation

(adapted from Margaret White, personal communication)

1. Write down the dream in as much detail as possible.

2. Go back into the dream and make a list of all the key words, usually nouns but can be unusual verbs, adjectives or adverbs. You want those words that carry the most meaning. You need to leave the structure mostly intact for later. Skip a line between each word to make space to work with it.

3. Putting the dream aside and out of your mind, take each word you have listed and free associate to it, writing down everything that comes to mind. What you are trying to find are all the meanings that word has for you including synonyms and words that sound like the word in question. Ask yourself what that thing does, what it is used for, etc. If it is a person, ask yourself how you are like that person and write those characteristics down. Or, for example, Joe is a person who. . . What does Joe do? If you think an association could not possibly be right, it surely will be, so put it down. Your ego will try to censure the process, so keep it in its place.

4. Go back to the dream and rewrite it substituting one of your new meanings for each key word. You must use your intuition to select the right word. Sometimes the feelings you had in the dream will help you select. For persons, you will write: "a part of me that is arrogant. . ." etc. depending upon what characteristics you selected in common with that person. These identify your personality aspects and roles. If you get stuck and a substitution does not make sense, you may have to return to your list and work on the associations some more to find one that does.

You may also find that one association works in one place while a different one for the same word works somewhere else. Allow that freely. One of the wonderful things about dreams is that their symbols can hold more than one meaning simultaneously. Because of this, you can analyze a dream on several different levels. Just be careful to be consistent within a level. What we want here is the spiritual interpretation. You are looking for information about your personality aspects especially those that appear to be speaking to you through your dreams.

5. When you finish the analysis, write up the new form of the dream and give it a title. When you honor a dream by working with it, you will soon have more dreams and you will find it easier and easier to interpret them.

6. Look at the new dream and add a one-sentence statement of the main theme of it.


Buddhist Wheel of Life

You may have noticed that your suffering tends to cycle and recycle. You go around in circles and cannot find your way out. Cycles are normal in nature and in human life. Taken a step further, Buddhists explain our spiritual development in terms of cycles of reincarnation. Each reincarnation involves a round of experience that is predictable and that keeps repeating itself until we find a way to break out of it.

The Wheel of Life consists of four concentric circles. The hub has a cock representing lust, a snake for hatred and a pig for delusion each biting the tail of the one in front. These are the three poisons of egocentric volition. We have met them before in the form of passion, aggression and ignorance. The next circle is half white and half black. The white is the realm of the gods, humans with healthy volition; the black is the realm of hell, unhealthy volition.

The largest part of the wheel is the next circle which is divided into six realms or classes of sentient beings. These have been discussed before as the god, human, jealous god, hungry ghost, animal and hell realms. Each of them symbolizes a major orientation toward life and ranges from the most pristine to the most neurotic forms of behavior and experience.

The outer rim consists of the Cycle of Dependent Origination (nidanas) showing how each stage of development of karma leads into and incorporates each other one. There are twelve steps in the Cycle of Dependent Origination each of which represents the truth of suffering. Each gives birth to the next and each contains the qualities of the previous one. They are as follows. Try to imagine yourself in each stage as you read about them.

1. Ignorance (avidya) - this is the ignorance of dualism and the illusion of "I-ness." It is bewilderment and confusion due to a wrong assessment of reality, maya.

2. Samskara - accumulation of energy and activity that manifests through body, speech and mind as structuralizing forces. It is the basis of personal karma, tendencies of past lives acting in the present.

3. Consciousness (vijnana) - partially structured consciousness or psychic complex like frozen energy that results from the samskaras. Taken with the samskaras, it accounts for the experiential data in the unconscious including memory, dreams and emotional complexes.

4. Name and form (rupa) - material existence and mentality due to action of the skandhas. Rupa is composed of four structuralizing operations of 1) solidity (earth element), 2) cohesion (water element), 3) heat (fire element) and 4) motility (air element). These, taken together, create the body. Namas are the components of mental functioning. Bodymind functioning such as sensation, ideation, dispositional orientation, mood energy, etc.

5. The five senses (sad-ayatana) and their objects including mind - not the actual forms, but bases of awareness, and the capability and integration of all six.

6. Contact of senses and objects (sparse) - sensory impressions that give rise to impressions of tone corresponding to the particular mode of sensing.

7. Sensation or feelings (vedana) that result from contact.

8. Desire for objects (tanha), craving for what has been experienced, for sensual gratification. One of the six modalities is joined to one of the three motivations.

9. Grasping, attachment, prehension (upadana) - clinging to or holding on to the acquisition of the objects gained

10. Chains to existence (bhava) - process of becoming, creation of new forms of karmic tendencies that will come to fruition in next life.

11. Birth (jati) - first appearance of new patterns of karmic tendencies. Can be a newborn appearing in one of the six realms of being or thought which finds itself in a new situation. Ways of being in a situation.

12. Old age and death (jara-marana) - inevitability of change, decay and death. Process of disintegration, destructuring and entropic scattering which leads to ignorance again. This is a structure of patterning that feeds back on itself and creates the Wheel of Life.

The implication of all this is that, if we can interrupt this cycle anywhere, the whole thing will disintegrate leaving us enlightened or in a state of original unity. Buddhists say the easiest place to tackle the cycle is at the levels of ignorance or of desire or grasping (numbers 8 and 9). In terms of our present life, the first two take place in a past life, numbers 3-10 in this life and 10 and 11 in a future life, if that helps to orient yourself.

Samsara. Just a note on this to remind you of what samsara is. There are three components of it:

1) the klesas or bewildering emotions which, in the scheme above are ignorance, craving and grasping,
2) karma, the consequent action patterning which is represented by the energy (samskaras) and becoming (bhava) above, and
3) unsatisfactoriness (duhkha) which is composed of the rest. Removal of an one of these topples the entire structure.



[Note: Do not confuse samsara which is the process of worldly life through repeated births and deaths with samskaras which are the tendencies of number 2 above.]

SpiritSong logoReturn to Home Page